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ǧ's Indians Page

This is my personal tribute to the original people of our country which we now call The United States of America. It seems now days alot of Americans want to be put into categories as to suggest as being separate from each other instead of us all being Americans. This country's first people, were foremost, the Indians. Then the white man came and brought their life styles, their diseases, their greed with them. The white man also forced other races to make this new land their home land as well. Of course, many races came in hopes of *making it big* and having a better life than they did from their original home lands. Just as alot of white people came here with their hopes and dreams, their good hearts and generous ways. Our country has been described as a melting pot meaning that all races have blended throughout each generation. Now some of my brothers and sisters want to be taken out of the melting pot and be thought of as just not an American but a separate American. To my knowledge they consist of Black, White, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Island, Alaska Native and American Indian. No matter what we call ourselves, we are still Americans and should be proud of our hertiage. No one can go back in time and change what has happened to any race but we can live today for each other.

1. Treat the Earth and all that dwell thereon with respect.
2 .Remain close to the Great Spirit.
3. Show great respect for your fellow beings.
4. Work together for the benefit of all Mankind.
5. Give assistance and kindness wherever needed.
6. Do what you know to be right.
7. Look after the well being of mind and body.
8. Dedicate a share of your efforts to the greater good.
9. Be truthful and honest at all times.
10. Take full responsibility for your actions.

Osage Osage Indians settled in the rich woodlands of northeastern Oklahoma around 1796. Shortly thereafter, the area became United States property as part of the Louisiana Purchase. When a band of Cherokees settled near the Osage (after voluntarily moving from the East Coast), territorial violence erupted between the two tribes with white settlers caught in the middle. Eventually the United States negotiated a truce with Osage Chief Clermont, dropping all damage claims against the tribe if the Osage would cede seven million acres of land to the federal government. The Osage continued attacking, however, and were finally forced to cede the rest of their lands to the United States in 1825. They then moved to Kansas territory, but it was soon opened to white settlement. In 1870, Congress sold the rest of the Osage lands, turned the money over to the tribe and opened a reservation for them which later became Osage County. Before long, oil was struck on this land and the Osage became the wealthiest people per capita in the United States. Quapaw The Quapaw history is less violent, yet more tragic than that of the Osage. Prior to 1820, the tribe sold 45 million acres of their land south of the Arkansas river to the U.S. government for $18,000. The United States took the rest of their land in 1824 when four Quapaw chiefs, induced with alcohol and $500 each, ceded the property. Homeless, the tribe settled near the Red River on land received from the Caddos, a tribe from Texas. However, crop failures in successive years diminished the tribe, and the survivors scattered. In 1890, the Quapaw reorganized and obtained a sliver of property in northeastern Indian Territory. Zinc and lead were soon discovered on this land, and by the 1920s tribal members were gaining as much as $1.2 million a year in royalties from the mines. Five Civilized Tribes The lands which the Osage and Quapaw had ceded to the United States government were turned over to the Indians of the old Southeast, who were being relocated from their tribal homes. Five tribes of these Indians had come to be known as the Five Civilized Tribes because of their advanced systems of government, education and law enforcement. These tribes were the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek and Seminole. The most peaceful removal among the Five Civilized Tribes was the Choctaw in 1820. The other four tribes followed, with removals becoming increasingly bloodier from internal skirmishes and bouts with white men. The Choctaw even brought their crack police force called the Lighthorsemen to Indian Territory. This law enforcement unit maintained justice and safety for much of the region. Although a relatively peaceful move, the most tragic Indian removal to Oklahoma was that of the Cherokee. A portion of the tribe had already moved to Arkansas in the late 18th century. The rest were forced to move after the removal Act of 1830. The Cherokees' travels across the Missouri and Arkansas wilderness during harsh winter months became know in history as the "Trail of Tears" because many members of the tribe died and were buried along the way. By 1856, each of the Five Civilized Tribes established territorial boundaries in the frontier. These were all national domains, not reservations. Settled in their new homes, the Five Civilized Tribes began building cultures out of the Oklahoma wilderness, laying the foundation of a society which would carry the territory to statehood and modern times. The Five Civilized Tribes each formed their own constitutional governments and established advanced public school systems. The nations had powerful judicial systems and strong economies. some tribes brought black slaves and freedmen with them from the East and built plantations, villages and towns in the new "Indian Territory." To protect the five nations from angry Plains Indians who were upset at having to share their lands with the newcomers, the U.S. Army built several forts. These included Fort Washita near Durant and Fort Gibson near Muskogee. One Cherokee who moved west in 1829 was one of America's most honored Indians, Sequoyah. He was intrigued with the white man's ability to write, so after 12 years of experimenting and study, Sequoyah created an 86-letter syllabary for the Cherokee language. This alphabet was so efficient it could be learned in less than a month and became the standard means of communication for the Cherokee. Sequoyah's home is still standing near Sallisaw. During the Civil War, individual Indians were divided between loyalty to the Confederacy or neutrality. However, tribal governments officially sided with the South. The rivalry turned to violence as Confederate factions attacked those Indians favoring neutrality, forcing them to flee into Kansas. In the Reconstruction Era after the Civil War, the United States government confiscated the western portions of the Indian Territory and began resettling other tribes such as the Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa and Comanche. The separate nations of the Five Civilized Tribes, would survive until Oklahoma's statehood in 1907. Plains Indians After the Civil War, many of the lands taken away from the Five Civilized Tribes in Oklahoma Territory were turned over to tribes from the West. As non-Indian expansion pressed westward and the railroads built networks of tracks, the federal government decided to relocate the western Indians, whose homes stood in the way of "progress." Moving in to these newly-designated lands were two great Indian leaders who lived their last days in the territory: Apache warrior Geronimo and Cheyenne Chief Black Kettle. Geronimo's relentless battle to stanch the expansion of settlers in the desert and mountains of the Southwest led him to incarceration at the Ft. Sill Military Reservation near Lawton where he lived to an old age. Chief Black Kettle was an outspoken proponent of peace with white men, but he was killed in the last great battle between Indians and the U.S. Army in Oklahoma. Black Kettle was among several chiefs who signed the peace treaty of Medicine Lodge, Kansas, in 1867, which guaranteed the Cheyenne and Arapaho land in Oklahoma along with goods and services. As with many other Indian treaties, the federal government failed to uphold the bargain. Several bands of Cheyenne and Arapaho grew impatient, carrying out raids on government installations and many inhabitants. Conflicts between Indians and settlers continued in Oklahoma until the 20th century, although not as violently as in the Washita River Battle. The Five Civilized Tribes' efforts to maintain autonomy disappeared in 1905 when they attempted to organize an Indian state named Sequoyah. The federal government rejected this idea in favor of a single state combining the Oklahoma and Indian Territories. Thus, Oklahoma became the 46th state on November 16, 1907. When Indian and Oklahoma territories achieved statehood under one banner, Indians and settlers joined efforts to develop the state's cultural and economic assets. According to the 1990 census, Oklahoma's Indian population is 252,420, the largest of any state. Currently, 35 tribes maintain tribal councils in Oklahoma. Although Indians in Oklahoma are an active part of modern society, many tribes continue their customs and ceremonial rites in powwows scheduled throughout the year. These colorful powwows feature Indians dancing in native dress and are generally open to the public. Many major Indian events and museums are found in Oklahoma, providing an authentic glimpse at one of Oklahoma's most important pieces of history.

For more information about my *OKIE* land, after you have visited my web home, please click on the picture above and enjoy your visit.

An Indians Prayer to the Great Spirit

Great Spirit, give us hearts to understand; never to take from creation's beauty more than we give; never to destroy want only for the furtherance of greed; never to deny to give our hands for the building of earth's beauty; never to take from her what we cannot use. Give us hearts to understand that to destroy earth's music is to create confusion; that to wreck her appearance is to blind us to beauty; that to callously pollute her fragrance is to make a house of stench; that as we care for her she will care for us. We have forgotten who we are. We have sought only our own security. We have exploited simply for our own ends. We have distorted our knowledge. We have abused our power. Great Spirit, whose dry lands thirst, help us to find the way to refresh your lands. Great Spirit, whose waters are choked with debris and pollution, help us to find the way to cleanse your waters. Great Spirit, whose beautiful earth grows ugly with misuse, help us to find the way to restore beauty to your handiwork. Great Spirit, whose creatures are being destroyed, help us to find a way to replenish them. Great Spirit, whose gifts to us are being lost in selfishness and corruption, help us find the way to restore our humanity.

By the 1890's Native Americans knew their trail had become steep and rocky, but they believed it would continue. Confined rarely to reservations and ravaged by disease and starvation, the Indian population declined dramatically. Indian children were forced to attend federally supported boarding schools that attempted to replace traditional tribal values with American culture. Although denied citizenship and a voice in determining their future until 1924, Indian people persisted. World War ll brought dramatic changes to most Native American communities. Modern warriors enlisted in the armed forces, while other Indian men and women moved to urban areas to work in defense industries. Increased cultural pride following the war led many Indian people to seek employment and other opportunities in the non-Indian world. Others supported themselves within the old reservation communities. Today almost half of all Native Americans live in major metropolitan areas. From a low of approximately 250,000 in 1890, Native American population in the United States now numbers slightly over two million. Modem Indian people have combined the best of traditional tribal values with the opportunities afforded by contemporary American society. Although some Native Americans still follow the time-honored ways of their ancestors, others have assumed prominent roles within society in education, politics, business, medicine and agriculture. Unlike Frazer's sculpture, "being Indian" has never been cast in stone. Today, Native Americans ride forward on a trail into the future.

NOTE: All these are taken from articles sent to me and are quoted from an unknown source(s) unless noted. If anyone knows of the author(s), please email me so I can give credit.

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